How to Feed Baby Squirrels

For the first 7 weeks of their lives, baby squirrels survive solely on milk from their mothers.1 Puppy milk formulas like Esbilac powder make a great replacement for squirrel milk. You can also use standard kitchen ingredients to formulate your own squirrel milk using this Easy Squirrel Milk Recipe.

How to Nurse Baby Squirrels

Feeding milk to baby squirrels requires “specialized” equipment. A syringe or dropper works nicely. If you choose to use a syringe, make sure it’s made of glass. A baby squirrel will gnaw on a plastic syringe, wearing it down and potentially ingesting plastic. Another consideration when choosing your equipment is the size of the opening. To prevent your squirrel from feeding too quickly and choking or getting fluid in his airways, choose a syringe or dropper with a small opening.2

Baby squirrel drinking milk from a syringe.
Baby squirrel drinking milk from a syringe.

What About Solid Food?

Baby squirrels can start to eat solid food when their eyes open at around 5 weeks of age.2 Their incisor teeth should be grown in by then, so it’s ok to give them harder foods as long as those foods aren’t surrounded by a shell. In fact, the ability to crack a walnut is a sign that a young squirrel is ready to be released.2

How to Wean Baby Squirrels

The weaning process begins when a young squirrel is 8 weeks old and will last for 2 to 4 weeks.1,2,3 Therefore, a squirrel should be eating only solid foods by the time he is 10 – 12 weeks old. To wean your squirrel, you’ll need to introduce solid food into his diet while reducing his milk intake. There are two obvious ways to do this.

The most straightforward method is to replace a portion of the milk with solid food. Then, increase the proportion of food to milk every week. A feeding schedule based on this method might look like this:

Age                  Food
1 – 7 weeks        only milk
8 weeks              replace 1/4 of milk with solid food
9 weeks              replace 1/2 of milk with solid food
10 weeks            replace 3/4 of milk with solid food
11 weeks             only solid food

Another method of weaning squirrels is to start diluting the milk with water at 8 weeks of age and adding solid food to the squirrel’s diet at the same time. Since the composition of a mother squirrel’s milk changes over the course of the nursing period,1 this method might be preferable. Here’s an example of a feeding schedule using the dilution method:

Age                  Food
1 – 7 weeks        only milk
8 weeks             dilute milk until 1/4 of it is water; add solid food
9 weeks             dilute milk until 1/3 of it is water; add solid food
10 weeks           dilute milk until 1/2 of it is water; add solid food
11 weeks            only solid food

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1 Nixon, C., & Harper, W. (1972). Composition of gray squirrel milk. The Ohio Journal of Science72(1), 3-6. Retrieved from

2 Cherney, L. & Nieves, M. (1991). How to care for orphaned wild mammals. Iowa State University Veterinarian, 53(2), 94-99. Retrieved from

3 Webster, D., Parnell, J., & Biggs, W. (1985). Mammals of the Carolinas, Virginia, and Maryland. Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press.

How to Figure Out the Age of a Baby Squirrel

If you’ve found a baby squirrel, you’re probably wondering how old it is. Figuring out the age of a baby squirrel is a little tricky but not impossible. It’s especially important to have this information if you plan on raising the squirrel and need to decide what to feed her, when to release her, etc.

Most methods for determining the age of squirrels have been developed by scientists for research purposes. For example, X-rays can be used to measure bone fusion and growth, and the weight of a squirrel’s eye lens gives a reliable indication of age as well.1 Obviously, these methods don’t help us because a.) they require expensive, specialized equipment and b.) we don’t want to sacrifice and dissect our baby squirrel.

Fortunately, there are alternative ways to gauge the age of squirrels. These methods rely on observations of both the time of year and the baby squirrel’s physical development. Even though there’s no way to know precisely how old a squirrel is, you should be able to make a pretty good approximation using the following information.

Using the Time of Year to Age Baby Squirrels

The month in which you find a baby squirrel can give you a rough idea of its age. Since we know most squirrels are born in either March or July, simply count backwards on a calendar to estimate her age in months. Squirrels become self-sufficient at around 10 – 12 weeks of age,2,3 so you shouldn’t find any “baby” squirrels that are more than 3 months old.

Using the Rate of Physical Development to Age Baby Squirrels4

Like people, squirrels are born without any hair or teeth. Their eyes and ears are also closed at birth. Noting the development of these characteristics can give you a fairly accurate idea of a squirrel’s age in weeks. This method is only useful for very young squirrels because by the time they’re about 6 weeks old, all these traits will be present.

Fur – Hair first appears on the backs of squirrels at around 2 weeks of age and will grow to be 1 mm long by the third week. When the white hair on the tail is 2 mm long, the squirrel is about 4 weeks old. Fur will cover the underside of the tail (facing the belly) when the squirrel is 6 weeks of age.

Teeth – The appearance of a squirrel’s incisors, the sharp, prominent teeth in the front of a squirrel’s mouth, can also be used to help age a squirrel. The lower incisors come in first at about 3 weeks of age. Typically, the upper incisors don’t come in until the squirrel is about 4 1/2 weeks old.

Eyes – The age at which baby squirrels open their eyes can vary by several weeks. Most squirrels will have open eyes, either clear or cloudy, by the time they’re 5 weeks old. However, baby squirrels have been known to start opening their eyes by as early as 3 1/2 weeks and as late as 6 weeks.

Ears – Baby squirrel ears usually open when the squirrel is 3 – 4 weeks old.

Every child develops at a different rate, and as you can see, juvenile squirrels are no different. Instead of relying on a single attribute to determine age, it’s better to take all of the characteristics listed above into account along with the time of year. You can also use this handy tool to estimate the age of your squirrel.

Example of How to Estimate a Baby Squirrel’s AgeBaby squirrel age example

As you can see in the example above, this young squirrel’s eyes and ears are open, so he’s at least 3 1/2 weeks old. However, we know he’s younger than 6 weeks of age because the fur on the underside of his tail hasn’t quite filled in yet. The white fur on the tail is definitely longer than the 2 mm usually seen at 4 weeks. Therefore, this squirrel is probably about 5 weeks old.

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1 Dubock, A. (1979). Methods of age determination in Grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Britain. Journal of Zoology, 188(1), 27 – 40. Retrieved from

2 Reid, F. (2006). A field guide to mammals of North America (4th ed.). New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.

3 Webster, D., Parnell, J., & Biggs, W. (1985). Mammals of the Carolinas, Virginia, and Maryland. Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press.

4 Uhlig, H. (1955). The determination of age of nestling and sub-adult gray squirrels in West Virginia. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 19(4), 479-483.

When Do Squirrels Have Babies?

Different species of squirrel can give birth at different times of the year. For example, white-tailed antelope squirrels have their babies in the spring while southern flying squirrels produce one litter in spring and another in fall.1 There are dozens of different kinds of squirrels in North America alone,2 so as usual, we’ll focus on the most commonly recognized one, the eastern gray squirrel.

When Is the Eastern Gray Squirrel Breeding Season?

Gray squirrels can have up to two litters every year.1,2,3 They usually mate in January and then again in June.3 You can tell they’re getting ready to breed if you see them performing their “pre-mating ritual”, which involves a female leading one or more males on a merry chase. After becoming pregnant, the female squirrel will carry her babies for about 6 weeks before giving birth.1 Most baby gray squirrels are born in the months of March and July.2,4

Baby gray squirrel
Baby gray squirrel

How Many Babies Do Squirrels Have at a Time?

The number of babies in each squirrel litter is variable. Typically, gray squirrels give birth to 2 – 4 babies at a time, but their litters can contain up to 8 young.2 Birth occurs in the nest where the infants will remain until they’re weaned.

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1 Jackson, T. (2006). The illustrated encyclopedia of animals of America. London: Lorenz Books.

2 Reid, F. (2006). A field guide to mammals of North America (4th ed.). New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.

3 Webster, D., Parnell, J., & Biggs, W. (1985). Mammals of the Carolinas, Virginia, and Maryland. Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press.

4 Hefner, J. (1971). Age determination of the gray squirrel (Master of science thesis). Retrieved from